Countless times I have wondered how we can be successful in every aspect in life, why some of us are and some aren’t. The truth is those who are; know the essentialness of self-image upgrade and update, as well as, that the power behind change of mind is formula for change of life. Bursting the boundaries of our mental limitations and emancipating ourselves of constricting conservative thoughts paves out the expansion of what we are destined to achieve.
Stop, Think, only for a moment, now, write a figure that you want to accumulate in precisely 12 months from now, no limits, no restrictions.
The exact amount will tell you how much value you attribute to yourself in one year, surprising? No? Ask yourself, why did you put that particular figure? Why not one pound, one dollar, or one penny more? (Remove every external factor that your mind is bound by) By this simple exercise which takes less than a few seconds we can astronomically shift the poles of our self-image and accomplish anything. There are no limits in what you can achieve…
‘Character equals destiny’- Heraclitus, Greek philosopher
Inspired by- The Secret – Ask and Its Given- The Instat Millionaire
That momentum which has kept me going all these months has abruptly come to an end. Whilst most people in my situation would be filled with elation. The lack of mental stimulation and pressure has left me in a dazed haze. For I find myself at a loss as to what to do with my endless time. In many ways, I truly am a person who needs a ‘project’. Thus, my advice to anyone who is nearing the end of their tenure as a PhD student is to maintain their momentum have ‘projects’ and ideas set in motion as they finish. The burning desire to command and conquer will fizzle out in all certainty extremely quickly if not directed at something, this much I know now. Fortunately, I have found an outlet for my unused energy in the form of a new and exciting project which I will reveal in due course.
How will nanotechnology change your life, health and environment? Lancashire Teachers Science Conference
How is nanotechnology affecting your life now? How will your world change with the latest development in nanotechnology? Can you live to be 100 years old? Will nanotechnology allow you to have new heart, lungs and kidneys?
I am delighted to be invited as a keynote speakers at the Lancashire Science Teachers Conference. I will be talking about the innovative work being done in the UCLAN Institute of Nanotechnology and Bioengineering and the latest developments in the field of nanotechnology. Come and join me
Tapas Sen, Sarah J. Sheppard, Tim Mercer, Abdelbary Elihissi. Fabrication of lipid bilayer coated stable superparamagnetic core-shell nanoparticles in suspension for in vitro investigation of anticancer drug mitomycin C. RSC Advances, In press.
N. R. Khalid, Ejaz Ahmed, M. Ikram, M. Ahmad, David A. Phoenix, Abdelbary Elhissi, Waqar Ahmed and Mark J. Jackson. Effects of Calcination on Structural, Photocatalytic Properties of TiO2 Nanopowders Via TiCl4 Hydrolysis. Journal of Materials Engineering and Performance, In press.
Abdelbary M.A. Elhissi, Waqar Ahmed, Israr Ul Hassan, Vinod R. Dhanak, Antony D’Emanuele. Carbon nanotubes in cancer therapy and drug delivery. Journal of Drug Delivery, in press.
Maha Nasr, Samrana Nawaz, Abdelbary Elhissi. Amphotericin B lipid nanoemulsion aerosols for targeting peripheral respiratory airways via nebulization. International Journal of Pharmaceutics, 436 (2012) 611-616.
Abdelbary M. Elhissi, Joanna Giebultowicz, P. Wroczynski, Ana A. Stec, Waqar Ahmed, Mohamed A. Alhnan, David Phoenix, Kevin M. Taylor. Nebulization of ultradeformable liposomes: The influence of aerosolization mechanism and formulation excipients. International Journal of Pharmaceutics, 436 (2012) 519-526.
Abdelbary M.A. Elhissi, Waqar Ahmed, Kevin M.G. Taylor. Laser diffraction and electron microscopy studies on inhalable liposomes generated from particulate-based proliposomes within a medical nebulizer. Journal of Nanoscince and Nanotechnology, 12 (2012) 6693-6699.
Abdelbary M.A. Elhissi, Waqar Ahmed, David McCarthy, Kevin M.G. Taylor. A study of size, microscopic morphology and dispersion mechanism of structures generated on hydration of proliposomes. Journal of Dispersion Science and Technology, 33 (2012) 1121-1126.
Mukhtar Ahmed, T. Byrne, Abdelbary Elhissi, David Phoenix, Waqar Ahmed. Vibrational and AFM studies of the adsorption of glycine on DLC and si-DLC samples. Journal of Materials Science, 47 (2012) 1729-1736.
Abdelbary Elhissi, H. Gill, Waqar Ahmed, Kevin Taylor. Vibrating-mesh nebulization of liposomes generated using an ethanol-based proliposome technology. Journal of Liposome Research, 21 (2011) 173-180.
Abdelbary M.A. Elhissi, Michael O’Neill, Waqar Ahmed, Kevin M.G. Taylor. High-sensitivity differential scanning calorimetry for measurement of steroid entrapment in nebulised liposomes generated from proliposomes. Micro & Nano Letters, 6 (2011) 694-697.
Michael Taylor, Abdelbary M. Elhissi. Predicting the physical properties of tablets from ATR-FTIR spectra using partial least squares regression. Pharmaceutical Development and Technology, 16 (2011) 110-117.
Abdelbary M.A. Elhissi, M. Ashraful Islam, Basel Arafat, Michael Taylor, Waqar Ahmed. Development and characterisation of freeze-dried liposomes containing two anti-asthma drugs. Micro and Nano Letters, 5 (2010) 184-188.
Thu Ghazanfari, Abdelbary M. Elhissi, Zhea Ding, Kevin M. Taylor. The influence of fluid physicochemical properties on vibrating-mesh nebulization. International Journal of Pharmaceutics, 339 (2007) 103-111.
Abdelbary M. Elhissi, M.Faizi, Waseem F. Naji, H.S. Gill, Kevin M. Taylor.Physical stability and aerosol properties of liposomes delivered using an air-jet nebulizer and a novel micropump device with large mesh apertures. International Journal of Pharmaceutics, 334 (2007) 62-70
Abdelbary M. Elhissi, Kiran K. Karnam, M.R. Danesh-Azari, H.S. Gill, Kevin M. Taylor. Formulations generated from ethanol-based proliposomes for delivery via medical nebulizers. Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, 58 (2006) 887-894.
Abdelbary M. Elhissi, Michael A. O’Neill, Simon A. Roberts, Kevin M. Taylor. A calorimetric study of dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine phase transitions and steroid-liposome interactions for liposomes prepared by thin film and proliposome methods. International Journal of Pharmaceutics, 320 (2006) 124-130.
Abdelbary M.A. Elhissi, Kevin M.G. Taylor. Delivery of liposomes generated from proliposomes using air-jet, ultrasonic, and vibrating-mesh nebulisers. Journal of Drug Delivery Science and Technology 15 (2005) 261-265.
Mukhtar H. Ahmed, J.A. Byrne, T.E. Keyes, Waqar Ahmed, Abdelbary Elhissi, Mark J. Jackson, Ejaz Ahmed B. Zakariya. Chapter 1: Characteristics and applications of titanium oxide as a biomaterial for medical implants. In: “The design and manufacture of medical devices”, ed. J.P. Davim, WoodHead, Cambridge, UK, in press
Waqar Ahmed, Abdelbary Elhissi, Mark J. Jackson, Ejaz Ahmed, B. Zakariya. Chapter 2: Precision machining of medical devices. In: “The design and manufacture of medical devices”, ed. J.P.Davim, WoodHead, Cambridge, UK, in press
Abdelbary Elhissi, Waqar Ahmed. Chapter 1: Advances in design and technology of devices manufactured for drug delivery applications. In: “Medical Device Manufacturing”, ed. M.J. Jackson, J.P. Davim, Nova Publishers, USA, 2011.
Tapas Sen, Sarah Sheppard, Tim Mercer, Abdelbary Elhissi. “Magnetoliposomes: Stability of magnetic nanoparticles in suspension for drug delivery” NSTI-Nanotech 2010, http://www.nsti.org., ISBN 978-1-4398-3401-5 Vol.1, 2010, page 924-927, CRC press, Taylor & Francis group.
Kevin M.G Taylor, Abdelbary M.A. Elhissi. Preparation of liposomes for delivery from medical nebulizers. Liposome Technology Volume I, 2007, Gregoriadis G., ed. Informa Healthcare, USA. pp67- 84.
Abdelbary M.A. Elhissi, Kevin M.G. Taylor, Waqar Ahmed. Nanocarrier Systems for Drug Delivery for the Treatment of Asthma. Lambert Academic Publishing: Germany; 2011.
J. Dyke, Abdelbary Elhissi, Paul Joyce, Peter Lumsden. Impact: Linking Teaching and Research, School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences- Published by Centre for Research Informed Teaching, University of Central Lancashire, UK (2010).
J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 1999, 51: 1123±1134 # 1999 J. Pharm. Pharmacol.
Skin Delivery of Oestradiol from Deformable and Traditional
Liposomes: Mechanistic Studies
GAMAL M. M. EL MAGHRABY, ADRIAN C. WILLIAMS AND BRIAN W. BARRY
Drug Delivery Group, Postgraduate Studies in Pharmaceutical Technology, The School of Pharmacy,
University of Bradford, Bradford, BD7 1DP, UK
The drug finds it difficult to cross the barrier of skin provided by stratum corneum. The lipid vesicles have to cross this barrier which it finds difficult to overcome. Hence, most of the effect of these vesicles 1.e Liposomes is found in outer skin layers like epidermis and dermis. A new type of vesicle called transferosome is found to penetrate the intact skin, thus, giving transdermal effect. In vitro skin studies using both conventional liposomes and transferosomes is investigated in this study. Oestradiol was used as a model drug to investigate the mechanism to optimise its delivery via skin. Five mechanisms of these vesicles were investigated which are free drug mechanism, penetration enhancement, drug uptake by skin, intact vesicle permeability and . in drug free mechanism, the amount of free drug permeating the skin is calculated. Pretreating the skin with empty vesicles helped to study the penetration enhancement. Dipping stratum corneum in different formulations of liposome helped to determine the drug uptake. It was seen that vesicles of the size 200-300 nm can penetrate through the skin. The vesicles bigger than 500 is believed not to permeate through the skin. Different edge activators or surfactants like tween, span and sodium cholate are used to prepare transferosomes. Cholesterol is mixed in conventional liposomes as it is found to stabilise the vesicles
The vesicle were prepared using hand- shaking method. In this the lipid mixture was dissolved in ethanol or 2:1 ethanol : chloroform ration which were the organic solvents. These organic solvents dissolved the cholesterol and lipid. Oestradiol, the model drug was then added to this mixture which was previously radiolabelled. The mixture was then kept in rotary evaporatot. After complete evaporation of the organic phase, the thin film was hydrated with water and ethanol in 7% v/v. the vesicles were then then allowed to get swollen.
Smaller vesicles were prepared using bath sonicator at room temperaturefor 30mins. All the vesicle sizes were homogenized using 10 times extrusion using 200 and 100nm polycarbonate membranes.
Determination of entrapment efficiency
The entrapped and unentrapped drug were separated using mini column centrifuge. Sephadex gel was formed by soking Sephadex for 5h in wter. Whattman pads were used tas filter in bottom of the barrels. Centrifugation was done at 3000 rev per min for 3 minutes. Liposomes were recovered from the first and second stage of centrifugation.
Determination of drug release
The amount of free drug released by mini- column centrifugation was calculated indirectly from the amount of drug entrapped. The amont of drug entrapped helps to calculate the unentrapped amount. Unentrapped drug was calculated by considering the amount at zero time as initial amount.
Determination of vesicle size
Sizing was done using zeta sizer (photon correlation spectroscopy). Here the samples prepared in distilled water was filtered through 2µm membranes
Preparation of human skin membranes
Mid-line Caucasian skin samples were used for this purpose. These samples were stored at -20°C in vacuum. Heat separation technique was used to prepare epidermal membrane. The skin was heated at 60°C for 45 minutes in water bath which was then peeled off the underlying dermis. Stratum corneum was also prepared.
Results and discussion
This is expressed as percent entrapment of entrapped drug. The lipophilic drug estrodiol showed high entrapment efficiency. Phospholipid concentration, cholesterol and surfactant affected this entrapment efficiency. 99% was the maximum entrapment efficiency achieved.
The release of progesterone and steroid was found to be negligible for about 60h in DPPC liposomes. Steroid release was checked for diffusion lipid composition. It was found that in the formulation’s stable period negligible release was noted. In conventional liposome, 6% drug was released in 48 hours. Stabiliser like cholesterol was found to decrease drug release.
Use of deformable vesicles using surfactant showed sigmoidal shapes. The leaks were found to be greater due to leaky membranes. It was concluded that the lipid composition determines the entrapment of oestrodiol. Cholesterol decreased drug release whereas surfactants increased the drug release.
The average size of unilamellar vesicles was found to be 127 to 146nm irrespective of the liposome formulation.. the result is after sonication or manual extrusion. The sizes of multilamellar vesicles were dependant on the formulation. Vesicles with cholesterol showed greater size while with surfactants showed smaller size.
Delivery through skin
Deformable vesicles were found to be giving optimal delivery via skin. Data analysis were plotted of amount permeated against time. Deformable vesicles with cholate delivered the maximum amount of drug. The traditional liposomes only showed superficial drug delivery. deformable vesicles increased the skin permeation more than the partitioning of the compound.
In this experiment it was concluded that oestradiol delivery through vesicle is better than saturated aqueous solution. Deformable vesicles are found to be more efficient fir drug delivery via skin. It provided deeper drug penetration through stratum corneum which traditional liposomes failed to do.
by Leticia Ely , Wilson Roa , Warren H. Finlay , Raimar Lo¨benberg
In recent past pulmonary drug delivery has become a major interested involving systemic drug absorption and treatment methods for diseases such as diabetes mellitus, pain relief, cystic fibrosis, asthma, lung cancer, and tuberculosis. Delivering drugs through pulmonary system comes with challenges. These are tackled with the help of nanoparticles, aerosols and delivering drugs in the form of dry powder.
Use of nanoparticles in pulmonary drug delivery helps bypass mucocillary clearance, phagocyte clearance and translocation by epithelium cells. Drawbacks include the size of the nanoparticles that limit lung deposition, limited sedimentation lead the aresole to be cleared by lung quicly after inhalation. Aerosoles are incorporated with carrier particles and the increase in size helps increase the amount of drug deposition to the lungs.
Effervescent drug delivery has been widely used in oral drug treatments, especially for treatments of stomach distress, vitamin supplements and analgesics. However, the authors states by year 2006 none has attempted use of effervescent formulations for treatment of pulmonary drug delivery. Therefore this study is the first attempted to investigate the suitability of effervescent technology along with nanonparticles for pulmonary drug delivery.
Polybutlycyanoacrylate (PBC) nonoparticle and ciprofloxacin hydrocholiride hydrate (CHH) are used as the model substance in this study to investigate suitability of active release mechanism of effervescent for pulmonary drug delivery. The new effervescent formulation was tested by comparing it with dispersion time of lactose particle carriers.
Both PBC nanoparciels and CHH nanoparticle was prepared using standard procedure as explained in brief in the article. The derived particle were then tested for loading efficiency by dissolving lactose or effervescent powder in water and analyzed using UV spectroscopy at 271nm before and after loading. Dissolved drug content was then calculated with the help of calibration curve and liner regression. To tag the particles with flourcent labeling, 7 ml of suspension of PBC was added to 7% lactose containing solution or to 7% lactose solution with either PEG 6000 and L-leucine or 7% lactose solution with an effervescent solution contacting PEG 6000 and L-Leucine. The solutions were then spray dried under standard conditions used in this study.
The particle size was determined using the photon spectroscopy. Mass, median diameter ( MMA) was determined with help of Mark II Anderson cascade Impactor and with new high efficiency inhaler. Sample were also investigated using confocal laser microscopy and scanning electron microscopy . Different compositions of the powders were tested and spray dried to analyze an appropriate size that will help pulmonary delivery.
To formulate a novel effervescent formulation different concentrations of citric acid, and carbonates in different rations of 50% sodium carbonate, 50% sodium bicarbonate was analyzed in tablet formulation. Two components in an aqueous environment are shown in the following formulation.
R–COOH þ XHCO3 H2O R–COOX þ CO2 þ H2O
As seen effervescent formulation releases carbon dioxide, when disintegration is increased and absorption is increased the phase transition between solid phase and gas phase result in an increase of volume and drug dissolution. The basic effervescent formulation contains citric acid, water and sodium carbonate, since this formulation has to be spray dried in order to be used for pulmonary delivery the Ph of solution was increased at 8 by adding ammonia. To active the expected MMD and particle size polysorbate 80, L-leucine and PEG 6000 were added to the basic formulation along with different amounts of lactose were added.
Change in amounts of lactose resulted in changes in size and morphology of the career particles. Smaller particle sizes were achieved increasing the lactose and visa versa. They were dense and spherical in shape.
The particle sizes data indicates by lactose was found to be 73.38 +/-13% and for powders containing the L-leucine/PEG 6000 effervescent formulation was 68.55+/- 23.90%, therefore the researchers conclude using PEG 6000 powder would be the most ideal for formation of inhalable particles. Comparison of the releases of drug from drug ciprofloxacin( poorly water soluble) was compared between lactose particles and effervescent formulation. Results indicated effervescent carrier particles released 56+/-8% while lactose particle released 32+/-3. The significance was noted at t-test, P < 0.05.
Polybutylcyanoacrylate nanoparticles were also compared with lactose and effervescent formulation. Four different powders with constant of L-lucin and PEG were created to test the effervescent formulation. Data indicated there was significant increase in particle size P < 0.05 if only lactose was used but when lactose contained PEG and L-Leucin no statistical different was observed in particle sizes.
Effervescent property of carrier particle was tested by exposing to water. Data indicated that nanoparticle was actively distributed in the gas bubbles. When effervescent powder was dispersed in water immediate gas bubbles and dispersion was observed.
A new effervescent formulation was formed for the model drugs. The formulations formulated including lactose containing L-leucin and PEG 6000 was able to release nonpartiles seem to have been better compared to career particles made of just lactose by reducing agglomeratiotion and had better active releases. Results indicted releases of nanoparticle were affected by both the effervescent formulation and coic of excipients used. The force made by the effervescent reaction helped disperser the nonparticle efficiently and reduced particle aggregation and increase disintegration and drug dissolution. Researches also state more studies are needed to determine if the effervescent formulation was inhalable. With further studies the effervescent carrier particle could possibly be used for number of drug delivery to the lung with better efficient compared to the conventional carrier particles.
by Möller et al. 2009
This paper discusses, sinusitis and rhinosinusitis. The was to develop a better treatment method for these infections. Sinusitis is a commonly diagnosed illnesses in European population, it is also estimated that over 10 -15% of the European population suffers from rhinosinusitis. Sinusitis and chronic rhinosinusitis a result of inflamed nasal lining due to bacterial, fungal and allergic infections. Inflammation of nasal mucus lining will result in an increased mucus secretion, loss of cilia, obstructed air pathway and blockage of nasal drainage. This will lead to loss of mucus drainage and in turn sinusitis while chronic rhinosinusitis is observed in an environment with reduced ventilation.
In vivo and in vitro studies have indicated that paranasal sinus could be reached through nebulized drugs but it was noted that it only had a low efficiency, therefor the main treatment method for chronic sinusitis and rhinosinusitis still remains as surgery. It is important to find a better treatment and transportation method of drugs for treatment of these infections.
This study aims to analyse the ventilation efficiency of the sinus of three healthy volunteers, using dynamic 81mKr-gas imaging along with pulsating airflows. The researchers also study and investigate the deposition efficiency by radiolabeling the aerosols with DTPA(diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid) and retention of 99mTc-DTPA aerosol particles after a period of 24 hours was assessed.
Three healthy male volunteers (non-smokers) with a mean age of 46+/- 12 were recruited to participate in this study. All three volunteer’s has normal lung functions and had no history of allergic diseases. Nasal anatomies of the three subjects were investigated with use of MRT imaging and fibre optic rhinoscopy.
Pulsating aerosol delivery system.
PARI SINUS system with 45Hz frequency with amplitude of 24mbar was used to generate a pulsating aerosol generating system based on PARI BOY N aerosol drug delivery device. The rate of mass output was at 0.2ml/min, There was no significance difference between pulsating aerosol output and non-pulsating aerosol output was noted.
Kr-gas ventilation studies. Contineous ventilation of Kr-gas through nasal airway was given in front of a single head gamma camera with the use of PARI SINUS system the air supply has 82mKr- gas generator output channel. Kr-gas ventilation imaged was taken with and without pulsation for comparison.
The aerosol was produced using a solution composed of 99mTc- DTPA (diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid) with nanocolloid of 500 Dalton in size. DTPA aerosols constructed were used for ventilation imaging and measurement of alveolar transmembrane permeability. Passive diffusion results in clearing out of 99mTc-DTPA within 90 minfrom the lungs into circulation. Nebulizer was filled with DTPA solution containing about 600 MBq of 99mTc-activity. Total nasal deposition rate was assessed by measuring the output rate of the nebulizer all particles on PALL BB50 filter before the aerosol delivery. Post DTPA delivery was measured during 24hours by investigating the nasal deposition, retention and clearance along with low energy collimator. Images of anterior and lateral gamma camera were coded just after inhalation, and after 1.5, 3, 6 and 24 hours post inhalation respectively. DTPA Translocate to blood after 24 hours was assessed by urine analysis. Statistical analyses of group difference of with or without pulsation were performed and calculated by two-sided t-Test with a significance level of p < 0.05.
There is only little Kr- gas pentration to the paranasal sinus is seen, this is clearer since sinus do not appear on this image.
Images suggest negligible Kr- gas activity in the maxillary sinuses. Kr-gas penetration was seen in the nasal airway when administrated without pulsation while with pulsating the gas penetration was seen to front sinus resulting in activity above the nasal airways and Kr-gas penetration to maxillary sinuses shows activity to central nasal activity region and below. The images demonstrate Kr-gas activity in central nasal cavity and the frontal and maxillary sinus in all three volunteers. There were no difference in activity was visualized in central nasal cavity due to pulsating air flow after normalization for the activity of the nebulizer, But a 5 fold incur of activity in four sinus with pulsation air flow was observed.
Aerosol deposition in the nasal airways and in the nasal sinuses
Aerosol deposition was not recovered in the first image obtained after immediate aerosol deliver confirming tight closure of the soft plate during aerosol delivery. Three subject showed total aerosol deposition (% of nebulized dose) of 25 ± 16% without pulsation and 58 ± 17% with pulsation (p < 0.01) in the nasal cavitiy. Pentration to the sinuse was ovserved at 4.2 ± 0.3% with plkkusation with 1% was seen for without pulsation.
DTPA clearance from the nasal cavity
Aerosols delivered with and without pulsation deposited were cleared with half time of 1 hours according for nearly 30% of the aerosols. The remained were cleared with half time 6.9 and 7.9 hours for both with and without pulsation aerosol delivery. Retention of aerosol without and with pulsating delivery in nasal cavity after 24 hours were observed at 5.4 ± 1.8% and 8.6 ± 1.3% respectively while a( p < 0.01) DTPA was excreted into the urine within 24 hours.
Ventilation of maxillary and frontal sinuses was observed by gamma camera was observed with pulsating air flow with an deposited aerosol penetration of 3% to 5% into the paranasal sinus with pulsating delivery system where as only 1% was seen when administrated via non pulsation. There for pulsation has increased aerosol deposit in the nasal airway by factor of three.
The data suggests that paranasal sinus ventilation air flow and aerosolized drug delivery showed high efficiency when given via pulsating air flow. The data therefore suggest that topical drug delivery to paranasal sinus in relevant quantities could be a possible future treatment instead of surgery with further investigations. The data presented in this study only uses three volunteer’s which is not a sufficient number of test subjects there for further investigation should be recommended. The three subjects were healthy with clear air pathways; therefore for treatment of chronic rhinosinusitis the data may not be applicable.